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Any phenomena in the atmosphere, excluding precipitation, that reduces horizontal visibility. According to the National Weather Service, some of the obstructions to visibility include blowing and widespread dust, fog (including freezing fog and patchy fog), haze, mist, sand and blowing sand, smoke, blowing spray, and volcanic ash. It is reported as “X” in an observation and on the METAR.
In meteorology, the evaluation of one or more meteorological elements, such as temperature, pressure, or wind, that describe the state of the atmosphere, either at the earth’s surface or aloft. An observer is one who records the evaluations of the meteorological elements.
Also known as an occlusion, it is a complex front formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front. It develops when three thermally different air masses conflict. The type of frontal boundary they create depends on the manner in which they meet.
The intercommunicating body of salt water occupying the depressions of the earth’s surface, or one of its major primary subdivisions, bounded by the continents, or the equator, and other imaginary lines. A sea is subdivision of an ocean.
The study of the ocean, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the ocean’s physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of sea water, and marine biology.
A warm high aloft which has become displaced and is on the polarward side of the jet stream. It frequently occurs in the late winter and early spring in the Northern Hemisphere. The name comes from its resemblance to the Greek letter, Omega, when analyzed on upper air charts.
A condition where a material, such as a cloud, blocks the passage of radiant energy, especially light. Opaque sky cover refers to the amount of sky cover that completely hides all that might be above it.
Where the flow of air is forced up and over barriers such as highlands or mountains. Moist air being forced aloft begins to cool, consequently condensation forms, and rain or snow begins to fall. By the time the air reaches the leeward side of the barrier, it sinks and warms, resulting in decreasing relative humidity, cessation of precipitation, and the dissipation of clouds. May be called an orographic uplift.
Also referred to as an outflow boundary, it is the outward flow of air from a system, such as a thunderstorm. It is the result of cold downdrafts and its passage includes a wind shift and temperature drop.
The amount of sky cover for a cloud layer that is 8/8ths, based on the summation layer amount for that layer.
This occurs when a relatively warm air mass is forced above a cooler air mass of greater density. Weather generally associated with this event includes cloudiness, cool temperatures, and steady precipitation.
A colorless, tasteless, odorless gas that is the second most abundant constituent of dry air, comprising 20.946%.
A nearly colorless gas and a form of oxygen (O2). It is composed of an oxygen molecule made up of three oxygen atoms instead of two.
An atmospheric layer that contains a high proportion of oxygen that exists as ozone. It acts as a filtering mechanism against incoming ultraviolet radiation. It is located between the troposphere and the stratosphere, around 9.5 to 12.5 miles (15 to 20 kilometers) above the earth’s surface.